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Calculations (Beta)

Use Calculations to write spreadsheet-style formulas.

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Calculations are in Beta.

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Users will need Can Edit permissions.

Hex calculations allow you to write ad-hoc formulas using a familiar spreadsheet interface. Creating a formula will add a new column to your table.

Calculations can be created wherever you use Tables (in a Table Display cell, or in the Table tab of a SQL cell or Chart cell). To get started, click the + icon at the right of a table. The formula bar will open and a new column will appear on the right. Then, type a formula using the syntax in the language documentation below. To reference columns, begin typing to bring up a list of matching column names. Use the arrow keys to move up and down the suggestions list, and select the desired column by hitting Tab or Enter. Alternatively, click a column in the table to reference it in your formula.

A preview of your calculated values will be rendered as you type. Hit Enter or ⌘ + Enter to run the calculation in ernest. The calculation will be applied to every row in the table.

To edit an existing calculation, either click the fx icon in the column header or click the column’s header and select Edit formula….

Calculated columns can be filtered, formatted, and sorted, just like a regular column. If a cell with a calculation has a cell-level filter applied to it, the calculation will run before the filter is applied.

Formulas

The Hex calculation language is designed to be familiar to spreadsheet users. You can perform basic arithmetic using mathematical operators:

numerator / denominator

You can compose functions to perform more sophisticated logic:

If(end_date < Today(), 'Closed', 'Active')

The data types, operators, and functions that are available in the Hex calculation language are documented below.

Data types

The calculation language presents four data types: Text, Number, Boolean, and Datetime. They map to the underlying dataframe data types as follows:

Calcs TypePandas TypeSQL TypeExample Literals
TextobjectVARCHAR, CHAR'Hello!', '', null
Numberint64, float64INT, BIGINT, SMALLINT, FLOAT, DOUBLE, DECIMAL42, -42.0, 2.5e12, null
BooleanboolBOOLEANTrue, False, null
Datetimedatetime64DATE, DATETIME, TIMESTAMPnull

Note that there are no datetime literals (besides null); datetime inputs to functions must be column references.

Operators

OperatorDescriptionInput Data TypesReturn Type
&Concatenates two text values.Text & TextText
+Adds two numbers.Number + NumberNumber
-Subtracts one number from another.Number - NumberNumber
*Multiplies one number by another.Number * NumberNumber
/Divides one number by another. Hex automatically protects you from divide-by-zero errors.Number / NumberNumber
^Raises one number to the power of another. Number ^ NumberNumber
%Modulo. Returns the remainder when dividing one number by another.Number % NumberNumber
AND / &&Logical ANDBoolean AND BooleanBoolean
OR / ||Logical ORBoolean OR BooleanBoolean
NOT / !Logical NOTBoolean NOT BooleanBoolean
=Evaluates if one value equals another.Number = Number Text = Text Datetime = DatetimeBoolean
>=Evaluates if one number is greater than or equal to another.Number >= Number Datetime >= DatetimeBoolean
>Evaluates if one number is strictly greater than another.Number > Number Datetime > DatetimeBoolean
<=Evaluates if one number is less than or equal to another.Number <= Number Datetime <= DatetimeBoolean
<Evaluates if one number is strictly less than another.Number < Number Datetime < DatetimeBoolean
!= / <>Evaluates if one value is not equal to another.Number != Number Text != Text Datetime != DatetimeBoolean

Functions

📝 Text

FunctionDescriptionExample
Concat(text_1, ..., text_n)Concatenates multiple text values together into one. Equivalent to the & operator.

Inputs
text: A text value to concatenate. Any number of additional text values can be added.

Return type
text

Example
Concat('Jane', ' ', 'Doe') → ‘Jane Doe’
Concat('Jane', ' ', 'Doe') → ‘Jane Doe’
Length(text)Counts the number of characters in text.

Inputs
text: A text value to measure the length of.

Return type
number
Length('Hex') → 3
Left(text, n)Returns the first n characters of text.

Inputs
text: A text value to take the first n characters of.
n: The number of characters to take.

Return type
text
Left('abcd', 3) → ‘abc’
Right(text, n)Returns the last n characters of text.

Inputs
text: A text value to take the last n characters of.
n: The number of characters to take.

Return type
text
Right('abcd', 3) → ‘bcd’
Lower(text)Converts a text value to lowercase.

Inputs
text: A text value to make lowercase.

Return type
text
Lower('Jane Doe') → ‘jane doe’
Upper(text)Converts a text value to uppercase.

Inputs
text: A text value to make uppercase.

Return type
text
Upper('Jane Doe') → ‘JANE DOE’
Contains(text, search_text)Returns True if text contains search_text, and False otherwise.

Inputs
text: A text value to search in.search_text: A text literal to search for withintext. Cannot be an expression or reference.

Return type
boolean
Contains('abcd', 'abc') → True
StartsWith(text, search_text)Returns True if text starts with search_text, and False otherwise.

Inputs
text: A text value to search in.
search_text: A text literal to search for at the start of text. Cannot be an expression or reference.

Return type
boolean
StartsWith('abcd', 'abc') → True
EndsWith(text, search_text)Returns True if text ends with search_text, and False otherwise.

Inputs
text: A text value to search in.
search_text: A text literal to search for at the end of text. Cannot be an expression or reference.

Return type
boolean
EndsWith('abcd', 'bcd') → True

🧮 Math

FunctionDescriptionExample
Abs(number)Computes the absolute value of number.

Inputs
number: A number to take the absolute value of.

Return type
number
Abs(-3) → 3
Ceiling(number)Rounds up number to the nearest integer.

Inputs
number: A number to round up.

Return type
number
Ceiling(3.14) → 4
Floor(number)Rounds down number to the nearest integer.

Inputs
number: A number to round down.

Return type
number
Floor(3.14) → 3
Power(number, power)Raises number to the power of power. Functionally equivalent to ^.

Inputs
number: A number to raise by the power of power.
power: The power to raise number by.

Return type
number
Power(3, 2) → 9
Sqrt(number)Takes the square root of number.

Inputs
number: The number to take the square root of.

Return type
number
Sqrt(9) → 3
Exp(power)Raises the mathematical constant e to the power of power.

Inputs
power: The power to raise e by.

Return type
number
Exp(1) → 2.718281828459045
Round(number)Rounds number up or down to the nearest integer.

Inputs
number: The number to round.

Return type
number
Round(3.14) → 3

🔀 Logical

FunctionDescriptionExample
If(condition, value_if_true, value_if_otherwise)Returns value_if_true if condition is True, and value_if_otherwise otherwise.

Inputs
condition: An expression resulting in True or False.
value_if_true: A value to return if condition is True.
value_if_otherwise: A value to return if condition is not True. Must be the same data type as value_if_true.

Return type
text, number, boolean, datetime
If(num % 2 = 0, 'Even', 'Odd')
Switch(switch_value, if_matches_1, result_1, ..., if_matches_n, result_n)A more succinct and readable way of nesting many If() statements based on one single input value. Returns the result value corresponding to the paired if_matches value that equals the switch_value.

Inputs
switch_value: The value to compare against all the if_matches values.
if_matches_1: The first value to compare against switch_value. If they are equal, the function returns result_1. Otherwise, it compares switch_value to the next if_matches value.
result_1: The value to return if switch_value equals if_matches_1.

Return type
text, number, boolean, datetime
Switch(status_code, 1, 'Processing', 2, 'Confirmed', 3, 'Shipped', 4, 'Delivered')
Coalesce(value_1, ..., value_n)Returns the first non-null value.

Inputs
value_1: A value to return if not null. If null, the next value input is considered, and so on.

Return type
text, number, boolean, datetime
Coalesce(null, 0, 42) → 0
IsFinite(number) Returns True if number is not null, not NaN, and not Inf. Otherwise, returns False.

Inputs
number: A number to check for being finite.

Return type
boolean
IsFinite(42) → True
IsOneOf(value, match_1, ..., match_n)Returns True if value equals any of match.

Inputs
value: A value to compare against all the match values.
match_1: The first value to compare against value. If they are equal, the function returns True. Otherwise, it compares value to the next match value.

Return type
boolean
IsOneOf(1, 2, 3, 4) → False (1 is not equal to 2, 3, or 4)
IsNull(value)Returns True if value is null, and False otherwise.

Inputs
value: A text, number, boolean, or datetime value to check for being null.

Return type
boolean
IsNull(null) → True

🪄 Casting

FunctionDescription
ToText(number)Converts number into a text data type.

Inputs
number: A number to convert to text.
Return type
text

Example
ToText(123) → ‘123’
ToNumber(text)Converts text into a number data type.

Inputs
text: A text value to convert to a number.

Return type
number

Example
ToNumber('123') → 123
ToDatetime(text)Converts text into a datetime data type.

Inputs
text: A text value to convert to a datetime.

Return type
datetime

Example
ToDatetime('2024-02-19') → 2024-02-19T00:00:00
ToBoolean(number)Converts number into a boolean data type, where 0 is False and 1 is True.

Inputs
number: A number to convert to a boolean.

Return type
boolean

Example
ToBoolean(0) → False

📅 Date & Time

FunctionDescription
Year(datetime) Quarter(datetime) Month(datetime) Day(datetime) Hour(datetime) Minute(datetime) Second(datetime) Millisecond(datetime)Extracts the date part specified in the function name from datetime.

Inputs
datetime: A datetime value to extract from.

Return type
number

Example
Day('2024-02-14') → 14
TruncYear(datetime) TruncMonth(datetime) TruncDay(datetime) TruncHour(datetime) TruncMinute(datetime) TruncSecond(datetime)Truncates datetime down to the nearest datepart as specified in the function name.

Inputs
datetime: A datetime value to be truncated.

Return type
datetime

Example
TruncMonth('2024-02-14 10:31:50') → 2024-02-01 00:00:00
Now()Returns the current date and time.

Inputs
None

Return type
datetime

Example
Now() → 2024-02-15 13:04:56
Today()Returns the current date.

Inputs
None

Return type
datetime

Example
Today() → 2024-02-15

➕ Aggregates

FunctionDescription
Avg(number)Computes the mean of the input column.

Inputs
number: A numeric column you want to compute the average of.

Return type
number

Example
Avg(column) → 2.53
Count(column)Counts the number of all values in the input column.

Inputs
column: A column (of any type) whose values you want to count.

Return type
number

Example
Count(column) → 1640
Max(number)Returns the maximum number in the input column.

Inputs
number: A numeric column you want to compute the maximum of.

Return type
number

Example
Max(column) → 5007
Median(number)Returns the median number from the input column.

Inputs
number: A numeric column you want to compute the median of.

Return type
number

Example
Median(column) → 52
Min(number)Returns the minimum number in the input column.

Inputs
number: A numeric column you want to compute the minimum of.

Return type
number

Example
Min(column) → -47
StdDev(number)Returns the sample standard deviation of the input column.

Inputs
number: A numeric column you want to compute the sample standard deviation of.

Return type
number

Example
StdDev(column) → 1.43
StdDevPop(number)Returns the population standard deviation of the input column.

Inputs
number: A numeric column you want to compute the population standard deviation of.

Return type
number

Example
StdDevPop(column) → 1.47
Sum(number)Returns the sum of all the values in the input column.

Inputs
number: A numeric column whose values you want to take the sum of.

Return type
number

Example
Sum(column) → 387
Variance(number)Returns the sample variance of the input column.

Inputs
number: A numeric column you want to compute the sample variance of.

Return type
number

Example
Variance(column) → 2.12
VariancePop(number)Returns the population variance of the input column.

Inputs
number: A numeric column you want to compute the population variance of.

Return type
number

Example
VariancePop(column) → 2.42

Other Syntax

SyntaxDescriptionExample
()Grouping, mostly used for order of operations on arithmetic.(a+b)/c
``Wrapper for column references. Only required if the column name contains special characters such as a whitespace.`My Column`

Nulls

The result of a calculation will be null if null is one of the formula's arguments, and substituting the null argmument with different values would produce different outcomes. For example, startswith(null, 'Hello') returns null because substituting null with different values produces different outcomes (substituting with Hello produces True, while substituting with Hi returns False). Some more examples are below:

ExampleOutcome
1 + nullnull
If(null, b, c)c
Switch(null, b, c)null
True OR nullnull
False OR nullnull
True AND nullnull
False AND nullFalse
null OR nullnull
null AND nullnull

Null values are ignored for all aggregate calculations. For example, Count(column) will ignore null values when calculating count of values in column.

Known limitations

  • Not all databases support calculations with Query mode: It is not possible to configure calculations on query objects from certain connections. See the table below to understand which connections are supported.
  • No windows: Window operations (Rank(), PercentOfTotal(), offset range inputs, etc.) are not currently supported.
  • Column-level, not cell-level: Calculations happen on the column level. It is not possible to perform a calculation on a single row without applying it to the rest of the column. Similarly, you must reference whole columns in your formulas. It is not possible to reference an individual row, or range of rows, in your formula.

Supported connections

The below table details which data connections are supported when using Calculations on query objects.

DatabaseSupported?
AlloyDB
Athena
BigQuery
ClickHouse
CloudSQL (MySQL)
CloudSQL (PostgreSQL)
CloudSQL (MS SQL Server)
Databricks
Dremio
DuckDB
MS SQL Server
MariaDB
Materialize
Motherduck
MySQL
PostgreSQL
Presto
Redshift
Snowflake
Starburst
Trino